It is only the truly virtuous man who can send away such a man and
banish him, driving him out among the barbarous tribes around,
determined not to dwell along with him in the Auddle Kingdom. This
is in accordance with the saying, "It is only the truly virtuous man
who can love or who can hate others."
To see men of worth and not be able to raise them to office; to
raise them to office, but not to do so quickly:-this is disrespectful.
To see bad men and not be able to remove them; to remove them, but not
to do so to a distance:-this is weakness.
To love those whom men hate, and to hate those whom men love;-this
is to outrage the natural feeling of men. Calamities cannot fail to
come down on him who does so.
Thus we see that the sovereign has a great course to pursue. He must
show entire self-devotion and sincerity to attain it, and by pride and
extravagance he will fail of it.
There is a great course also for the production of wealth. Let the
producers be many and the consumers few. Let there be activity in
the production, and economy in the expenditure. Then the wealth will
always be sufficient.
The virtuous ruler, by means of his wealth, makes himself more
distinguished. The vicious ruler accumulates wealth, at the expense of
Never has there been a case of the sovereign loving benevolence, and
the people not loving righteousness. Never has there been a case where
the people have loved righteousness, and the affairs of the
sovereign have not been carried to completion. And never has there
been a case where the wealth in such a state, collected in the
treasuries and arsenals, did not continue in the sovereign's
The officer Mang Hsien said, "He who keeps horses and a carriage
does not look after fowls and pigs. The family which keeps its
stores of ice does not rear cattle or sheep. So, the house which
possesses a hundred chariots should not keep a minister to look out
for imposts that he may lay them on the people. Than to have such a
minister, it were better for that house to have one who should rob
it of its revenues." This is in accordance with the saying:-"In a
state, pecuniary gain is not to be considered to be prosperity, but
its prosperity will be found in righteousness."
When he who presides over a state or a family makes his revenues his
chief business, he must be under the influence of some small, mean
man. He may consider this man to be good; but when such a person is
employed in the administration of a state or family, calamities from
Heaven, and injuries from men, will befall it together, and, though
a good man may take his place, he will not be able to remedy the evil.
This illustrates again the saying, "In a state, gain is not to be
considered prosperity, but its prosperity will be found in
Back to Top